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Rule 30(b)(6) in Depositions and at Trial

Posted In Litigation

One of the big “if only” moments in corporate litigation concerns testimony: if only a corporation as a corporation could face deposition. Despite the legal fiction that corporations have an identity, it remains impossible, absent some serious and frightening advances in future technology, for a corporation to testify on its own behalf. To get around this dilemma, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure include Rule 30(b)(6) (“30(b)(6)”). This rule allows a party to name an entity such as a corporation, an association or a governmental agency as a deponent, and that entity will then designate a representative to be deposed on behalf of the company. (Kentucky’s Civil Rule of Procedure 30.02(6) substantially tracks the federal rule, so this information applies to both Kentucky and federal courts.) The rub is that 30(b)(6) deponents face a different set of standards for testimony than regular deponents, and that difference could create havoc for a client, up to and including sanctions. More >

Five Ways Municipalities Invite Exposure to Liability

Municipalities can be complicated and complex entities serving hundreds to thousands of individuals and businesses, while  employing numerous people themselves. Cities, not unlike any small or big business, face similar challenges (and liabilities) as  any private corporation, only with the added mandate of providing services and protection for all of those who work or live within their boundaries.  It is impossible, of course, to eliminate all liability facing municipalities in today’s public sector legal environment. Still, liability can be avoided to a large degree with planning and consideration. With that in mind, below are five ways municipalities invite exposure to liability, but more importantly, insight on how to prevent it. More >

Charge-offs on Consumer Debts: The Kentucky Supreme Court Causes Shaky Ground to Collect Prejudgment Interest

The Kentucky Supreme Court is shaking things up for banks that collect on charged-off debts. The decision in Unifund CCR Partners v. Carol Harrell, 509 S.W.3d 25  (Ky. 2017), is an eye-opener for lenders regarding their strategies to recover a contractual or statutory right to collect interest on prejudgment debt. More >

Laws Every Small Business Owner Needs to Know

Small businesses have a tremendous impact on the U.S. economy, providing 55% of all jobs and 54% of all U.S. sales, according to the Small Business Administration. With such an impact, it’s easy to think that these businesses are subject to less regulation and legal hurdles. Instead, the reality is that small businesses are subject to the same complex tangle of regulation that other businesses face for the most part, but they are often less-equipped to negotiate it. With that in mind, here are four types of laws that small business owners must consider during operation of their businesses. More >

Five Reasons to Consult an Attorney for Your Small Business

Couple with Open Sign

Starting a small business can be difficult. It requires a tremendous amount of passion and dedication, as well as some assistance from professionals such as accountants, insurance agents and others. While you may not need an attorney in the same measure, consulting one at the outset of the business and periodically throughout can get you off to a good start and keep you from falling into common legal traps. Here are five reasons you should consult with an attorney that will greatly benefit your small business. More >

Supreme Court Upholds Strict Diversity of Citizenship of Non-Corporate Entities for Diversity Jurisdiction

In a unanimous decision on March 7, 2016, the United States Supreme Court affirmed its longstanding principle that unincorporated entities cannot claim diversity jurisdiction for federal court purposes. This case highlights the striking differences between corporations and other entities, and provides a roadmap for how major unincorporated entities are viewed by the federal court system. More >

Congress Moves to Expand Definition of “Accredited Investor” Under Regulation D

In an era where Congress and the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) have been working to break down barriers to investment and equity development, it only makes sense a new bill currently wending its way through the legislative process would expand the definition of an “accredited investor.” H.R. 2187, The Fair Investment Opportunities for Professional Experts Act (“the Act”), passed the United States House of Representatives by a vote of 347 to 8 in February and now resides in the Senate. This effort would widen the pool of investors for private placements under Section 501(a) of Regulation D[1] by including those with experience and education in addition to those with a requisite net worth or salary.


[1] 17 C.F.R. § 230.500 et seq. More >

When Should I Choose to Form a C Corporation Instead of An LLC?

Arguably, one of the most important decisions that will affect the ultimate success of a business, whatever its size, is the decision of how to incorporate that business. There is a fairly wide range of choices to choose from, from sole proprietorships on up to regular C corporations. A business entity that has seen a meteoric rise in usage in the past few decades is the Limited Liability Company (“LLC”), and for good reason – LLCs come with a host of advantageous characteristics that combine some of the best traits of several options available to business entities. LLCs combine limited liability for members with the flexibility to choose how they’re taxed, such as flow-through taxation akin to partnerships (e.g., no taxation at the entity level, as with regular C corporations). With the rise in the popularity of LLCs, however, it’s helpful to know when there are advantages to choosing the venerable C corporation form over the upstart LLC. More >

Looking at the basics of Chapter 11 for businesses, P.1

Last time, we mentioned that a Virginia-based mining company will be selling off parts of its business—including parts located in Kentucky—as part of its Chapter 11 bankruptcy filing. In this and our next post, we wanted to provide a brief overview of Chapter 11 bankruptcy and why it is important for businesses to work with experienced legal counsel when pursuing a bankruptcy. More >

Kentucky mines to be sold as part of bankruptcy proceedings

Bankruptcy often has a significant impact on the way a business operates. This makes sense, given that businesses going through the bankruptcy process have to figure out a way to make themselves viable after the process is complete. Oftentimes, part of what has to happen for a business to remain viable going forward after a bankruptcy is to sell off assets and portions of the business. More >

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