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Yahoo!/Tumblr Deal and the Tax Cost of Cash Acquisition Payments
When Yahoo! recently acquired the blogging service Tumblr, the two companies structured the deal so that virtually all of the $1.1 billion price tag for Tumblr will be paid in cash. In the current economy, many companies, particularly tech companies, have a lot of cash available, making the more traditional payment in stock appear less desirable. However, tax planning during mergers or acquisitions can be invaluable because, with proper counsel, the organizations can anticipate and mitigate the tax ramifications for the companies, individuals and shareholders.
Specific information about any tax planning in the Yahoo!/Tumblr deal hasn't been released, but let's consider the potential tax consequences of an essentially all-cash deal.
Most of Tumblr’s existing shareholders likely purchased their stock for substantially less than it was valued at the time of Yahoo’s acquisition. Since capital gains taxes are levied on the difference between the purchase price and the sale price, those Tumblr shareholders may be facing a hefty capital gains tax bill that will come due as soon as the transaction is complete.
If the deal had been structured as a stock transaction, on the other hand, it might have been structured to defer the capital gains tax for those shareholders until they actually sell their stock to Yahoo! There are a number of methods, such as 1031 exchanges, Section 368 tax-free reorganizations, and or 338(h)(10) stock purchase elections, that might also be effective in mitigating the tax burden.
An all-cash deal also presents challenges for Yahoo! in that it could affect the incentives for Tumblr’s founder and senior management going forward. In a tax-free reorganization, for example, they would generally be compensated in Yahoo! stock, which automatically creates an incentive for Tumblr’s leadership to build value for Yahoo! Without stock, a different incentive plan is needed.
According to The New York Times’ DealBook blog, Yahoo! may not need to worry about incentivizing Tumblr’s leadership, however, as it plans to continue to run the blog service as a separate company with the same group of executives. That may leave the existing incentives for success in place.
In this particular case, we don’t have enough information to determine why Yahoo! and Tumblr structured the acquisition as an all-cash deal. Well-considered tax planning, however, is essential for any business considering a merger or acquisition, stock sale, or major asset sale. Anticipating and minimizing transactional taxes, including business transfer taxes and business succession taxes, can help ensure that companies garner all potential benefits of the deal.
Source: The New York Times’ DealBook, “The Tax Costs for Tumblr’s Owners,” Victor Fleischer, May 20, 2013